Francis O'Neill (1848–1936) was a collector and promoter of Irish traditional music whose work was a "huge influence on the evolution of Irish traditional dance music in the twentieth century". A popular set of lively and spirited polkas from 19th Century Ireland - heard in many Irish traditional music pub sessions - performed by whistle, guitar and fiddle. The Scotch-Irish in America tells the story of how the hardy breed of men and women, who in America came to be known as the ‘Scotch-Irish’, was forged in the north of Ireland during the seventeenth century. The row of buttons in the higher key is closer to the wrist of each hand. Although the choice of the Albert-system, wooden flute over the metal was initially driven by the fact that, being "outdated" castoffs, the old flutes were available cheaply second-hand, the wooden instrument has a distinct sound and continues to be commonly preferred by traditional musicians to this day. • He used classical music forms, came up with a formula of playing solos within the group and his ensemble lead to the creation of ‘musical arrangements’. The best-known regional fiddling traditions are from Donegal, Sligo, Sliabh Luachra and Clare. Peter Abnett, the first instrument maker to build an Irish bouzouki (for Dónal Lunny in 1970) makes a three piece staved back. The flute has been an integral part of Irish traditional music since roughly the middle of the 19th century, when art musicians largely abandoned the wooden simple-system flute (having a conical bore, and fewer keys) for the metal Boehm system flutes of present-day classical music. Traditions and Transformations in Irish Music, Since 1920, the island of Ireland has been divided politically between the Republic of Ireland (Ireland) and Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland: independent nation, capital Dublin, hosts a predominantly Catholic population, approximately 93% identify as Catholic, each county is known for its distinct cultural traditions and characters, before that (1922-1949) it was known as the Irish Free State, foundation of the Irish Free State came as a result of the Irish potato famine, which began in the 1840s, the famine led to the deaths of 1.5 million Irish people, the massive attempts at emigration reduced the population from 8 million to 3.5 million, Irish Diaspora led to development of Irish nationalism, Radio Eireann was a national radio station founded in 1926 that was established to preserve Irish traditional culture, ushered in a period of massive urbanization and reliance on manufacturing rather than agriculture as the main basis of economy, these changes led to both the increased prosperity and fears of culture loss, these factors led to the Irish music revival of the 1960s, the internationalization of the Irish music session was the most significant development out of this, a session is an informal gathering where musicians join together to play Irish tunes amidst socializing, Northern Ireland: province of the U.K., capital is Belfast, accounts for 15 percent of the island's landmass, long history of suffering, often violent struggle between the province's Irish Protestant (about 45%) and Irish Catholic (about 42%) populations, troubled history includes the persecution of Catholics, terrorism, and conflicts between the Republic of Ireland and Britain over political control of the region, Neo-Traditional Irish Music and the Irish Music Revival, Ireland experienced profound socioeconomic changes during the 1950s, Ireland prospered during the 1960s as a result of these changes, Recordings of traditional musicians from counties all over Ireland were made in record numbers and distributed nationwide, local, regional, and national music competitions emerged and inspired the Irish youth to return to their "roots" by taking up traditional Irish instruments, As the music was revived, it was transformed, Approaches to the playing of dance tunes and medleys became more formal and structured, Traditional instruments were still played but began to be accompanied by guitars and other chordal instruments, he was the key to the transformation of Irish music, he organized a group of leading Irish traditional musicians into the ensemble Ceoltoiri Cuanlann, together with these musicians he invented a fresh, neo-traditional Irish musical idiom, they employed use of uilleann pipes, 2 fiddles, tinwhistle, button box accordian, and bodhran (a hand-held frame drum), a new group emerged out of Ceoltoiri Cuanlann called The Chieftains, they are arguably the most widely influential and internationally renowned Irish traditional music group ever, sean nos, or "old way" songs, sung in Irish Gaelic, regarded by Irish music connoisseurs as the heart of Irish traditional music, involves a style of singing that may feature either elaborate or subtle forms of melodic ornamentation, distinctive rhythmic phrasing, and deeply felt emotional expression, the harp is the national symbol of Ireland, an informal social gathering that is usually held at a neighborhood pub or dance hall and involves dancing, musicians playing different instruments come together to perform the older traditional tunes and newer ones modeled after them, not typically accompanying dancing, an instrument with a rather soft dynamic range and a more delicate, refined timbre (as compared to Scottish bagpipes), developed from imported continental European prototypes into a uniquely Irish instrument, they play the same tonic pitch in every octave range, sounded is produced when air is forced through the pipes by a bellows, originally brought to Ireland from other lands, her work spans a broad and eclectic range of musical styles from neo-traditional to Irish-rock to Irish-Latin and Irish-African fusion, the Irish traditional core that defines her diverse musical approach is always present, she grew up in a Irish-American community where Irish music, dancing, social, and cultural values were a basic part of life, the environmental where she grew up was also a diversely multicultural one, this affected the formation of her musical and cultural identity, she grew up listening to salsa, rock, jazz, Broadway showtunes, and classical music, Irish diaspora resulted in the establishment of many Irish communities internationally, The members of these communities preserved and creatively developed Irish music, These new musical styles began to influence musician in the homeland, this created a cross-pollination and trans-national musical culture began. , many Irish fled the homeland and settled in foreign places and 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